They looked at 1249 suspects under 26 years of age who were arrested for robberies in London in 2019, and filtered that further to the 81 most persistent offenders who had been arrested for four or more street robbery offences that year. Of these 81 offenders, 74 were male and seven female.
They found that these persistent young offenders were significantly more likely to have experienced Adverse Childhood Experiences than even the other young offenders in the study. The authors write:
"The 81 prolific robbery offenders had extremely high prevalence of ACEs: 80% had previously been victims of crime themselves (highest offence categories assault with bodily harm, robbery and domestic violence). Reported to police as missing is 63%, school exclusions 49%, incarceration of a family member 35% and known to social services 91%. The prevalence of 4 or more ACEs among the 81 prolific robbery offenders is two to five times higher than it is in other estimates for London (random sample) or England (children in need)."
The researchers also found that the seven female offenders in the 81 had, on average, suffered more than the males, and with all seven females:
"The Department of Social Services had been aware of all their families from birth; all had witnessed serious levels of domestic violence harm; all had been excluded from school, and all had been missing persons. In addition, 71 percent had also been victims of sexual abuse."